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Evolution of Vienna Convention & Montreal Protocol
Vienna Convention
Montreal Protocol

Evolution of Vienna Convention & Montreal Protocol


The urgency of controlling the Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) particularly CFCs was slow to pick up.CFCs were so useful that society and the industry were reluctant to give up consuming them. However, even as the nations adopted the Montreal Protocol in 1987, new scientific findings indicated that the Protocol’s control measures were inadequate to restore the ozone layer. In addition, the developing countries had a special situation as they needed the technology of substitutes as well as financial assistance to enable them to change over to non ODS substances.

Meanwhile, the report of the scientific panels entrusted with the task of finding the extent of ozone depletion showed that the actual harm to the ozone layer was much more than predicted by theoretical models and the control measures envisaged by the Protocol in 1987 would not stop the process. More urgent action was therefore necessary. Therefore, at the 2nd meeting of the Parties in London in 1990, 54 Parties as well as 42 non-Party countries agreed on a package of measures satisfactory to all. It was agreed in this meeting that the 5 important CFCs and Halons would be phased out by the year 2000 and other minor CFCs and CTC would be controlled and eventually phased out. A special provision was made to fund the developing countries with an annual consumption of ODS of less than 0.3 kg per Capita (also called as Article 5 countries) in their efforts to phase out these harmful chemicals.These countries were also given a grace period of 10 years to phase out ODS.

In 1991, more alarming reports came up to show that the depletion of ozone is continuing in all altitudes except over the tropics. It  was recognized that it is not enough to control emissions of CFCs and Halons. Other fluorocarbon chemicals like Hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and Methyl bromide, which are also ozone depleting need to be controlled. They have also been brought under the ambit of the Protocol in 1992.


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